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tv   After Words  CSPAN  April 23, 2014 9:44pm-10:17pm EDT

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>> but the pilgrims -- don't get me wrong. i am not against myths. i think that, you know, the truth has unique virtues, but the project to sometimes from some unpalatable truths that they make, coexistence and compromise possible sometimes. between people who are totally candid, just would not get on. so. [inaudible] but i think one should value for what they are. the pilgrims, the stories that are commonly told an american history books. it just isn't true. they were.
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and they want, you know, refugees seeking liberty. they were looking for a paradise of their own making. you know, and indeed, you know, they did conform with the ideology. walter williams had to leave, for example, people who did not conform were persecuted. even after nearly three generations. the fathers in massachusetts, finding pretax in order to persecute minorities he did not conform. and, you know, they didn't, from away this was contained in order to establish a democratic
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tradition. it was accurate a top by the migrants who imposed their will on the rest. of course, you know, they did not leave england because of religious persecution. on the contrary that of the church did not persecute people enough. you know, i mean, i am amazed. most of them did not go directly from england. they started from holland. they were already exiled and had gone to holland in search of their rather grim utopia. the extradition started from holland and to stop on the way to pick up a few more migrants. and really almost everything. >> host: we have about a minute before we take a break. 110 as you the big question,
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hispanic or latino in terms of -- you use hispanic throughout the buck. latino has come up most recently. what is your -- >> guest: very interesting you should call that a big question. i think it is rather a trivial turmoil logical question. i like people to call themselves what they want to call themselves. somebody tells me she was to be called a latina, then i will call her that. i call myself hispanic. i can't see any good reason for abandoning that label. it stirs up as someone of spanish origin as well as people of latin american are spanish-american origin. to me it is more inclusive than latino. you have to remember, all these labels but if people are happy to use them on themselves, then i'm happy to reflect that back at them in my work.
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>> host: we will take a break and be right back. >> for more than a year there have been allegations, insinuations that i knew about the planning of the watergate break-in and then i was involved in an extensive plot to cover it up. the house judiciary committee is
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now investigating these charges. on march 6th i ordered all materials that i had previously furnished to the special prosecutor turned over to the committee. how these included tape recordings of 19 presidential conversations and more than 700 documents and private house files. on april 11 to the judiciary committee issued a subpoena for 42 additional tapes of conversations which it contended or necessary for its investigation. i agreed to respond to that subpoena. >> forty years ago on april 29th president nixon responded to last judiciary committee subpoena for additional watergate tapes. his response plus reflections from former "washington post" journalist carl bernstein sunday night at 8:00 eastern, part of american history tv this weekend on c-span three.
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>> the interview with felipe fernandez-armesto, author of our america continues now. >> host: during the break we were talking a little bit about our histories and the hispanic verses latina and one of the things that has come up is the fact that i lived in barcelona for a few years as a border region moment who is also american, the issue of biculturalism would come up occasionally in a conversation, and it was something that there was not a lot of understanding, like how you could identify both as american and as a porter rican. that is something that is still seeming to be an issue. and in nearby cuba again or you in chapter three talking about realism and this sort of by cultural identities that began did take shape. i would love to pick that up are with you and talk about these
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identities that people have and biculturalism, at least in that -- >> did you learn? >> host: i can speak a little bit. i and a standard lot better than i can speak it. >> guest: that is a very good example, people in barcelona typically switch between the two languages according to her own their talking. i think identity, i say in the book that think it's like a layer cake. people tell you they don't understand it. he just need to slice their layer cake. ivan identity. even if you are, you know, your family has lived in barcelona
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for centuries, you probably are going to feel. you may also -- you may also feel -- all lost. people in barcelona who are approaching you for being open to the varieties of pursuits from their world. and probably had the same, you know, the same equivocations but just were not thinking not. >> host: they wanted to distance themselves from these conquistadores and say, those were people from the south of spain. we had nothing to do with them. >> guest: strictly speaking, ages seven -- 1778. they take part in the overseas empire. and they did.
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and then the 19th century, the cuban empire. and in a large sense of the word. i don't know, you know, it runs me about the spanish professor who came to sell american cancers and went to lecture about the conquest and the latino or hispanic person in the audience a gun out and shook his hand, how dare you. your ancestors brutalize. so you know, my ancestors sowed decently opposed. it's true. >> host: as we start chapter four we get into california which is a very interesting state today. back then in particular you
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paint a fascinating picture of franciscan missions and branches and the ragtag group% lucy began to get to the state. what was south america, while we know as south america and mexico , the trends that were happening there that might have been influencing what is now california. >> guest: well, obviously in the late 18 -- the spanish effort had been -- well, the u.s. part. obviously strictly speaking. but it did not begin really into 1768. after all, when they just finished exploration and mapping. they did not attempt to colonize the country, convert the natives or incorporate into the empire and so really very late, and by that stage, what i referred to earlier in our conversation, the
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heartland of the spanish market and south america in the andes, you had to fabulous cities and enormous wealth and dazzling engineering projects. and it is still remarkable, i think, for anyone from the united states to those to approve or bolivia or not as far as south america if you just go to a mezzo, central america, mexico, cities. and you see how grand there were it was actually the spanish empire's great grandeur and prosperity when. it to decline relative to other
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empires which was rising even faster by this time. the achievement in terms of the transformation of the environment, creation of these warping of nature to human, the dynamic, the colony, the demographic, really extraordinary words which were on parallel anywhere that is now the united states. i think when i look at what the missionaries did in california in that very late 18th-century, there really, i think, animated by the standard. they had a standard of achievement which was represented by these great populist, rich economies in the western is spanish empire. create something as quickly as possible.
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why did they found some in the issuance? why did they sacrifice so much time and effort and money and manpower? why did they, you know, so so much grain. why did they believe so many cattle. found so many workforces reducing everything from the sort of candles and metalwork and munitions. it is because they knew that you could create a great european style world in the most -- environment. you could turn foragers into productive agriculturists and
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citizens of the spanish monarchies. it was part of the different attitude that the spaniards had toward the potential equals and citizens whom they had to elevate from the status was there regarded rather like that of a child's who you can raise to adulthood. the model they you can receive really influenced. >> host: one of the things that struck me about living in spain in particular was the united states team. and this board does not exist in english. we call ourselves americans. yet america spends north, south to the united states, canada. i mean, is there any thought to why that is and why is it exists
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in spanish, perhaps, but not letting us? >> guest: as of former resident of martial law you probably know about which one of the characters deplores the fact that the spaniards called him -- because he thinks it implies something. and, you know, the words and they use for each other's. these do sometimes acquire which were never really intended in the first place. i mean, obviously i don't think the people in the united states realize. you guys appropriated this word america. many countries the span the hemisphere. again, and don't get into trouble for coming in here and try to tell you what you want to
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think. it ..
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>> you will make your task much harder maybe the unexplained wealth outside of this hemisphere. you will not get a stake unless you embrace your fellow americans. >> host: on all sides these are our the land of opportunity but put it this way. i think i am not sure every historian makes the united
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states with the world's great power house. in to from all this land ameritech got great exploiting those resources. but relatively speaking the underground water sources. iran berndt argentina and
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chile isn't start respecting your fellow americans. >> going into cboe rise of institutionalized racism in the united states. with the blacks and hispanics and the spanish in to now this is becoming a racial demographic we're starting to do with it but to institutionalize dancing should racism? give us some examples.
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is the common feature of human psychology to see people you can identify with and you cannot do that. and a supposed to will ever get away from injured communal tensions with psychology and to sympathize with some people to do with it except by differentiating but i think the racism that they talk about is the day historic period. that science endorsed it.
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and relatively uninvolved in a relatively more involved. but the language from the deep south but those from mexico and native americans those that settled places like texas.
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said his rare myth to classify people. to innovate in an end characterize social attitudes. >> speaking about race the way hispanics are counted today by the census were counted as ethnicity as the race for you would check how many boxes applied to you racially ian definitely. one of the things considered now by the senses is to essentially change that so hispanic is considered a brace itself. what are your thoughts? >> why do we sell classified people?
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good or bad these things a rise from nothing to do and ancestors the genes are powerful enough. so why are you still talking? they are very useful they get to a lot of credit. >> host: do you suggest we enter into oppose racial society?
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in the in some ways with the language of race we bidders those comfortable talking about it. with the hostility is based on race therefore we talk about it. laid to use the word race a fear of london the book but it is implied like objective realities the way people thought of each other. >> host: has three major way through the final chapters but what you talk about is through the rise of political activism.
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lee talked earlier, president obama on or the incentive% of the bow is strategist they tried to capture the latino vote we have seen marco rubio, what do these figures represent and can they assume you got a voting bloc? >> i say this very tentatively with the hispanic there more of a bid
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of republicans were then democrats. to have very high and longevity in they tend to be better represented than democrats. they have conservatives but the bear kent election it seems to be odd but it is not the economy stupid does social values and is against their economic interest as asoka in -- psychological profile hispanics tend to be
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rich more committed than their families with stability that is the deluge that you find much more strongly voiced in republican rhetoric of the democrats. hispanics if not catholics tend to be more sensitive about the rights of the unborn then the population at large which identifies with the policy that is typically not. so they have a lasting hold on the hispanics. to sympathize because liberal in social policies
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that would deprive them but in the long run that will even itself out but the single voice is the immigration issue to bring them as your attitudes victimizing in to it fits into the rhetoric with the issues to realize the inevitable future is say properly embracing attitude i cannot see any reason for
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the republicans in futures. >> host: you mentioned a link wages in your book with datapoint from the census bureau the hispanics you speak english a home is expected to double. 27.20.5 million. what impact does that have if any? is language one of the unifying elements? >> no no. civic something from the united states when they first came here i was shocked to find people have those fetishes and attitudes cannot be a country for has more than one then on the wages completely contrary
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but they have more than one language to share more than one allegiance to new collaborate with the endeavor. i do predict in the book that hispanics will maintain their language in the future. i a gravy regret that i think that is the terrible shame because this would be twice as good. so you know, how this
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enriches your life and it opens up any gives you access to our literature but the united states to their understand? yes they think it means having spanish and english speaking children but it should be the other way around to. the lessons in spanish and english then you could have a bilingual country. isn't would generate so much more. with every other great society with more than one line cough.
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>> one of the things that is talked about the hispanics living in the united states is our young they are and how by cultural in acculturated they will become. there is a theory that i have heard here than there from this this looks trying to reach the market that younger hispanics are interested in the retro culture system to sorcery then you realize they do want to teach my children spanish or how to learn to cook certain foods. might that perhaps connect its generation and hispanics to the original culture? >> i have. the hispanic families that i ow


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